Thermal Conversion of Solid Wastes and Biomass

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Enhancement of properties of surrogate MSWs by hydrothermal treatment; a the proximate analysis and b the calorific values. However, the moisture content of the treated SM 1 and SM 2 samples decreased from Hydrothermal treatment is known to dissociate physical and chemical structures of biomass in surrogate MSWs [ 5 , 16 ]; therefore, the biomass in MSWs is decomposed into small and simple molecules.

Our results demonstrated that hydrothermal treatment improved the drying performance of the surrogate MSWs. Additionally, the chemical properties of the surrogate MSWs were changed using the hydrothermal treatment. The raw SM 1 and SM 2 samples contained high volatile matter After the hydrothermal treatment, the volatile matter and oxygen contents decreased, whereas the fixed carbon content increased from 6.

After the hydrothermal treatment, the calorific values of SM 1 and SM 2 samples increased from This result suggests that the hydrothermal treatment is more effective at producing an upgraded solid fuel from MSW with high paper content. The surrogate MSW was prepared by blending newspaper and Kimchi.

The content of the three major biomass components cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the MSW samples was considered to be an important factor affecting the performance of the hydrothermal treatment. The characteristic changes of these components were analyzed. Additionally, the effects of hydrothermal treatment on the calorific values of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were also examined.

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Dried newspaper was composed of Dried Kimchi was composed of Therefore, the total cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose content of the newspaper and Kimchi were The total cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose content in the biomass of the SM 1 and SM 2 samples were Specifically, the SM 1 and SM 2 samples contained The composition of biomass components cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of the MSW was found to influence the properties of the hydrothermal products. Biomass composition in the surrogate MSWs and their comparison with those of newspaper and Kimchi. The fixed carbon content of cellulose increased from 6.

When xylan was used as a hemicellulose, the fixed carbon and carbon contents increased from As the fixed carbon content and carbon contents increased due to the hydrothermal treatment, the calorific value increased. However, the results for lignin were different from those for cellulose and hemicellulose. The changing characteristics of biomass components by hydrothermal treatment; a cellulose, b hemicellulose, c lignin, and d carbon content. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on changes in the properties of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

Additionally, the ash content of lignin was higher than that of cellulose, indicating that lignin possesses higher ash content. Pure lignin had a higher calorific value When cellulose was treated by hydrothermal treatment, the calorific values increased to When xylan was used as a hemicellulose, the calorific value increased from However, the calorific value of lignin started to increase from The increase in the calorific values for SM 1 and SM 2 was influenced by their cellulose and hemicellulose content.

As reaction temperatures increase, the calorific value of solid products increases, but the amount of solid product decreases due to chemical dehydration and decarboxylation i. Salman is a prolific writer with many publications to his credit.

His articles have been appearing in reputed journals, magazines and web-portals on a wide array of topics related to renewable energy and waste management. He is based in India and can be reached at salman. Biomass is the material derived from plants that use sunlight to grow which include plant and animal material such as wood from forests, material left over from agricultural and forestry processes, and organic industrial, human and animal wastes.

Biomass comes from a variety of sources which include:. The energy contained in biomass originally came from the sun. Through photosynthesis carbon dioxide in the air is transformed into other carbon containing molecules e.

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The chemical energy that is stored in plants and animals animals eat plants or other animals or in their waste is called bio-energy. When biomass is burned it releases its energy, generally in the form of heat. The biomass carbon reacts with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide. If fully combusted the amount of carbon dioxide produced is equal to the amount which was absorbed from the air while the plant was growing.

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  • Waste-to-energy.
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In nature, if biomass is left lying around on the ground it will break down over a long period of time, releasing carbon dioxide and its store of energy slowly. By burning biomass its store of energy is released quickly and often in a useful way. So converting biomass into useful energy imitates the natural processes but at a faster rate.

Biomass waste-to-energy conversion reduces greenhouse gas emissions in two ways. Heat and electrical energy is generated which reduces the dependence on power plants based on fossil fuels.

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The greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by preventing methane emissions from landfills. Moreover, waste-to-energy plants are highly efficient in harnessing the untapped sources of energy from wastes. Biomass energy technology is inherently flexible. The variety of technological options available means that it can be applied at a small, localized scale primarily for heat, or it can be used in much larger base-load power generation capacity whilst also producing heat. Biomass generation can thus be tailored to rural or urban environments, and utilized in domestic, commercial or industrial applications.

A host of technologies are available for realizing the potential of biomass waste as an energy source, ranging from very simple systems for disposing of dry waste to more complex technologies capable of dealing with large amounts of industrial waste.

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Biomass can be converted into energy by simple combustion, by co-firing with other fuels or through some intermediate process such as gasification. The energy produced can be electrical power, heat or both combined heat and power, or CHP.

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Biochemical processes, like anaerobic digestion, can also produce clean energy in the form of biogas which can be converted to power and heat using a gas engine. In addition, wastes can also yield liquid fuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, which can be used to replace petroleum-based fuels. Algal biomass is also emerging as a good source of energy because it can serve as natural source of oil, which conventional refineries can transform into jet fuel or diesel fuel. Biomass energy projects provide major business opportunities, environmental benefits, and rural development.

Feedstocks can be obtained from a wide array of sources without jeopardizing the food and feed supply, forests, and biodiversity in the world. As such, it can consist of organic biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials. Some of the waste may also be recyclable.

RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste non-hazardous such as plastics and biodegradable waste and as such, has more consistent combustion characteristics than unsorted MSW. Incineration of MSW is a mature technology for producing energy in many countries but the proper handling, combustion and control of emissions is critical to ensure environmental credentials. In many emerging economies, MSW is left untreated and disposed of through landfills or is subject to improper incineration, with unsustainable and environmentally damaging implications.

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The increase in RDF production and availability is growing in importance as a feedstock and has implications for the long term investment decisions being made for waste to energy conversion. Typical characteristics There is significant variety in MSW characteristics depending on geographical location, season, and many other factors. Unsorted MSW will contain many varying materials of different composition, particle size; combustibility and moisture content.

It is the more typical type of fuel to be found in emerging countries.