Conservation of Plant Genes. DNA Banking and in Vitro Biotechnology
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Moreau, M. What is more, Bt toxin enters into the nutrient cycle of living things via contamination of soil and water by the leaves of transgenic plants. By analogy, due to possible gene flow from herbicide-resistant cultured species to their wild relatives, the latter may develop resistance against herbicides as well. Thus, serious problems would be faced if some weed and pest species which we can now fight by using existing technologies and chemicals develop into new uncontrollable resistant forms which may, consequently, do more harm to plants.
Paradoxically, the very technologies intended to reduce chemical use would actually result in more severe environmental damage due to the need to use more toxic chemicals which may in some cases prove irremediable. In terms of crossbreeding between species, there are some notable families and plant groups in Turkey. Among these, wheat from the Poaceae family has an evolutionary process full of examples of interspecies gene exchange.
As it is known, all wheat species cultured today are artificial species formed as a result of crossbreeding between their wild relatives.
Conservation of Plant Genes
The existence of crossbred species developed by pollination of wheat species which have developed as a result of past interspecies genome exchange by other species can be accepted as a part of natural evolution. This is an illustration of the possibility for these species to receive genes from transgenic plants. Studies point to gene flow between bread wheat and its wild relative Aegilops cylindrica.
In addition, according to Fedak [ 25 ], barley Hordeum vulgare and intermediate wheatgrass Agropyron intermedium can develop crossbred plants with 3. Of special interest is a possible gene flow from soybean, corn, cotton and rapeseed — with a total cultivation area of 7. Another family at risk in terms of interspecies crossbreeding in Turkey is the mustard family Brassicaceae. Many species of this family are known to be used in different ways. Alyssum saxatile , Brassica oleracea , Cardaria draba , Crambe orientalis , Iberis saxatilis , Isatis glauca , Lobularia maritima , Matthiola incana are used in landscaping as ornamental and cover plants; while others e.
Capsella bursa-pastoris are used in the pharmaceutical industry as medical plants or as dye-bearing plants e. Isatis tinctoria in the textile industry. In the People's Republic of China, genes of genetically modified, herbicide-resistant rape Brassica napus have been detected to have escaped to mustard greens Brassica juncea , the free-living wild relative. The Amaranth family Amaranthaceae is also known to be one of the families with high gene flow. Another topic of discussion on the potential negative effects of GMO implementations are the species used for biofuel production.
In particular, the European Union EU countries have set future targets for use of biofuels produced from materials such as plant origin oils, product residues and wood. This would obviously result in damage to agricultural sustainability and agricultural gene pools. All these examples should be given careful consideration, as indiscriminate use of GMOs can result in disruption of ecological balance and, finally, in damage to plant gene pools. For this reason, the possible negative impacts on plant gene pools should be monitored closely and plant origin genes should be given priority in this type of studies.
In the context of environmental protection, it can be suggested that molecular plant improvement methods can be more advantageous than transgenic plants in developing counties such as Turkey. At this point, detection and characterization of Turkish genetic pools and even defining and patenting those of commercial importance will elevate Turkey to a high position. Once the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources adopted by FAO in is enacted [ 11 ] and Turkey establishes the required legal and research infrastructure, there will be more space to utilize genetic pools more efficiently.
However, examination of the current situation in Turkey shows that biotechnology implementations cannot be transferred to industry and the required infrastructure has not been established yet. Each pillar has its own roles in line with its capacity and work definition. Failure of an organization which is within the system and serves as a complement to others, results in dysfunctioning of the whole system.
From this point of view, a brief overview of the current structure in Turkey shows that universities serve as the basic component of the research system and the private sector is not included in the system but indeed should be a main component.
Embrapa Network for Brazilian Plant Genetic Resources Conservation
Due to the above-listed problems, Turkey does not have the infrastructure required for cultivation of GMOs despite its strong position on this issue. Therefore, it is now not allowed to grow GMOs in Turkey. Thus, there is no commercial production of genetically modified crops in Turkey and Turkey does not export such crops to the United States or other countries.
In , Turkey continued to be an importer of bulk and semi-processed commodities. Cotton remained the top exported commodity from the United States to Turkey in Soybeans and soybean meal are the second largest imported commodity, but their portion has decreased dramatically since and There is no ban, however, on production of GMOs for research and development purposes in Turkey.
In addition, import and production of 19 types of products 3 soybean and 16 corn species are permitted only for animal feeding purposes. Attempts made in the last couple of years to consolidate small cultivation lands in Turkey support this suggestion. Detection of the potential risk faced by plant gene pools, performance of the infrastructure works to minimize this risk and taking all required precautions are the three most important points to be underlined here. For maximum utilization of the existing genetic potential, Turkey should develop sufficient infrastructure for biotechnological studies by defining the areas of priority and should train enough qualified specialists.
From a legislative point of view, Turkey introduced legal regulations on the production and inspection of GMO-containing products under the Law on Biosafety in Turkey's Law on Biosafety permits regulations on the use of GMOs and development of plant biotechnology. However, the cumulative disincentives in the forms of quarantine control, approvals, liability and prohibition on the cultivation of biotechnological products have discouraged the development of GMOs. The law also mandates that for any research on GMO development carried out in Turkey, the researcher needs to apply to the Biosafety Board in advance for permission to carry out the research.
Although many academicians voiced concerns about this issue, and the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock MinFAL has stated that the law will not discourage research, it seems to have already had an impact on the willingness of the private and public sector to pursue research in this area. Turkey does not have any field testing of products derived from agricultural biotechnology.
The law forbids entrance into Turkey of GMOs and GMO-containing products, which threaten human, animal and plant health as well as environmental and biological diversity; disrupt the ecological balance of the environment and ecosystems; carry the risk of spreading in the environment and threaten the continuity of biological diversity. Issues such as GMO content, inspection, import, labelling, etc.
In this context, Turkey can be suggested to pursue a prudent policy on protection of national genetic pools, although perhaps not at a sufficient level. Throughout its historical development, biotechnology has played significant roles in the protection, use and diversification of all components of biological diversity. It has been a cornerstone particularly in the protection of plant gene pools and in ensuring agricultural sustainability. Biotechnological methods continue to be used in the protection of plant gene pools, which are difficult or impossible to protect via classical methods.
In its own right, biotechnology is an indispensable means not only for sustainable management of plant gene pools, which includes the insurance of sustainable agriculture and sustainable use of gene pools, but also for creation of new diversity resources. However, the use of biotechnology for development of Bt-toxin-producing plants may damage the ecological balance and plant gene pools as a result of contamination of nature with undesired genes.
There are many examples of interspecies gene exchange during evolution in nature. A careful observation of nature suggests that interspecies gene flow is an ongoing process and, in turn, it is possible for gene flow to occur from GMOs to wild relatives. However, the results of such gene flows cannot be observed in the short term. Thus, GMOs can potentially pose a significant threat on genetic diversity unless required measures are taken and possible risks are considered.
This situation is particularly important for areas rich in populations of wild relatives of crop plants e. Turkey, which is a genetic and origin centre for many crops and for some plant families with high interspecies crossbreeding. Having rich biological diversity, Turkey should take necessary precautions to protect its plant gene pools and ought to pursue policies aimed at sustainable development by taking appropriate protection measures.
Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. Published online Nov PMID: Received Jul 7; Accepted Oct The moral rights of the named author s have been asserted. Abstract The recent rapid developments in biotechnology have made great contributions to the study of plant gene pools. Keywords: plant gene pools, biotechnology, agricultural biological diversity, gene flow, Turkey.
Introduction Plant biological diversity is an important factor particularly in such fields as agriculture, medicine, pharmacy and environment and is also an indicator of development potential. Plant gene pools and biodiversity in Turkey Located within the temperate zone, Turkey attracts attention with its outstanding plant diversity characteristics different from many of its neighbours. Micro-genetic centres in Turkey and common species.
Micro-genetic centres Species Thrace—Aegean Wheat bread, durum, oriental, club, einkorn, spelt , grits, sweet melon, lentil, chickpea, common vetch, lupine, clover. Southeastern Anatolia Einkorn, emmer, Ae. Samsun—Tokat—Amasya Fruit genera and species, common bean, lentil, broad bean, legume fodder crops. Kayseri and its surroundings Apple, almond, pear, fruit species, grape fern, lentil, chickpea, trefoil, sainfoin. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Possible negative effects of biotechnology applications on genetic diversity and interspecies gene exchange The evolution of living organisms is a natural process ongoing for millions of years.
Crop species Crop plants are especially vulnerable to some of the possible risks posed by biotechnology applications. Poaceae In terms of crossbreeding between species, there are some notable families and plant groups in Turkey. Brassicaceae Another family at risk in terms of interspecies crossbreeding in Turkey is the mustard family Brassicaceae.
Amaranthaceae The Amaranth family Amaranthaceae is also known to be one of the families with high gene flow. Biofuel species Another topic of discussion on the potential negative effects of GMO implementations are the species used for biofuel production. Biotechnological research and legislation in Turkey In the context of environmental protection, it can be suggested that molecular plant improvement methods can be more advantageous than transgenic plants in developing counties such as Turkey. Conclusions Throughout its historical development, biotechnology has played significant roles in the protection, use and diversification of all components of biological diversity.
Demir A. Food production from genetically modified organisms and international legal regulations. New approaches in the using and protection of plant genetic sources. Erik S. Ozhatay N. Kultur S. Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey III. Turkish J Bot. Aslan S. Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement flora of Turkey IV. Cansaran A.
The ultimate objective of storage is to stop all the cellular metabolic activities and maintain their viability. A regular and constant supply of liquid nitrogen to the liquid nitrogen refrigerator is essential. It is necessary to check the viability of the germplasm periodically in some samples. Proper documentation of the germplasm storage has to be done. In general, thawed germplasm is washed several times to remove cryoprotectants. This material is then re-cultured in a fresh medium following standard procedures.
Some workers prefer to directly culture the thawed material without washing. This is because certain vital substances, released from the cells during freezing, are believed to promote in vitro cultures.
The techniques employed to determine viability of cryopreserved cells are the same as used for cell cultures. The best indicator to measure the viability of cryopreserved cells is their entry into cell division and regrowth in culture. This can be evaluated by the following expression. The ultimate purpose of cryopreservation of germplasm is to regenerate the desired plant. Addition of certain growth promoting substances, besides maintenance of appropriate environmental conditions is often necessary for successful plant regeneration.
A selected list of plants in various forms that have been successfully used for cryopreservation is given in Table Hence, cold storage is regarded as a slow growth germplasm conservation method. Long-term cold storage is simple, cost-effective and yields germplasm with good survival rate. As alternatives to cryopreservation and cold storage, low-pressure storage LPS and low-oxygen storage LOS have been developed for germplasm conservation. A graphic representation of tissue culture storage under normal atmospheric pressure, low-pressure and low-oxygen is depicted in Fig. In low-pressure storage, the atmospheric pressure surrounding the plant material is reduced.
This results in a partial decrease of the pressure exerted by the gases around the germplasm. The lowered partial pressure reduces the in vitro growth of plants of organized or unorganized tissues. Low-pressure storage systems are useful for short-term and long-term storage of plant materials.http://legutel.com/includes/322/2594.php
Unknown, Conservation of Plant Genes: Dna Banking and in Vitro Biotechnology, 1e
The short-term storage is particularly useful to increase the shelf life of many plant materials e. The germplasm grown in cultures can be stored for long term under low pressure. Besides germplasm preservation, LPS reduces the activity of pathogenic organisms and inhibits spore germination in the plant culture systems. In the low-oxygen storage, the oxygen concentration is reduced, but the atmospheric pressure mm Hg is maintained by the addition of inert gases particularly nitrogen.
The partial pressure of oxygen below 50 mm Hg reduces plant tissue growth organized or unorganized tissue. This is due to the fact that with reduced availability of O 2 , the production of CO 2 is low. As a consequence, the photosynthetic activity is reduced, thereby inhibiting the plant tissue growth and dimension. The long-term conservation of plant materials by low-oxygen storage is likely to inhibit the plant growth after certain dimensions. This is in contrast to an in vitro cell line maintenance which has to be sub-cultured and transferred periodically to extend viability.
Cryopreservation is an ideal method for long term conservation of cell cultures which produce secondary metabolites e. Rare germplasms developed through somatic hybridization and other genetic manipulations can be stored.