Frege: Importance and Legacy (Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy, Bd 13)

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Russell, in particular, saw formal logic and science as the principal tools of the philosopher. Russell did not think we should have separate methods for philosophy. Russell thought philosophers should strive to answer the most general of propositions about the world and this would help eliminate confusions. In particular, he wanted to end what he saw as the excesses of metaphysics. Russell adopted William of Ockham 's principle against multiplying unnecessary entities, Occam's Razor , as a central part of the method of analysis.

Russell had great influence on modern mathematical logic. The American philosopher and logician Willard Quine said Russell's work represented the greatest influence on his own work. Russell's first mathematical book, An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry , was published in This work was heavily influenced by Immanuel Kant. Russell later realised that the conception it laid out would make Albert Einstein's schema of space-time impossible.

Thenceforth, he rejected the entire Kantian program as it related to mathematics and geometry , and rejected his own earliest work on the subject. He mastered Peano's new symbolism and his set of axioms for arithmetic. Peano defined logically all of the terms of these axioms with the exception of 0 , number , successor , and the singular term, the , which were the primitives of his system.

Russell took it upon himself to find logical definitions for each of these. He became convinced that the foundations of mathematics could be derived within what has since come to be called higher-order logic which in turn he believed to include some form of unrestricted comprehension axiom. Russell then discovered that Gottlob Frege had independently arrived at equivalent definitions for 0 , successor , and number , and the definition of number is now usually referred to as the Frege-Russell definition.

Before writing Principles , Russell became aware of Cantor's proof that there was no greatest cardinal number , which Russell believed was mistaken. The Cantor Paradox in turn was shown for example by Crossley to be a special case of the Russell Paradox. This caused Russell to analyse classes , for it was known that given any number of elements, the number of classes they result in is greater than their number. This in turn led to the discovery of a very interesting class, namely, the class of all classes.

It contains two kinds of classes: those classes that contain themselves, and those that do not. Consideration of this class led him to find a fatal flaw in the so-called principle of comprehension, which had been taken for granted by logicians of the time. He showed that it resulted in a contradiction, whereby Y is a member of Y, if and only if, Y is not a member of Y. This has become known as Russell's paradox , the solution to which he outlined in an appendix to Principles , and which he later developed into a complete theory, the theory of types.

Aside from exposing a major inconsistency in naive set theory , Russell's work led directly to the creation of modern axiomatic set theory. It also crippled Frege's project of reducing arithmetic to logic. The Theory of Types and much of Russell's subsequent work have also found practical applications with computer science and information technology. Russell continued to defend logicism , the view that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic, and along with his former teacher, Alfred North Whitehead , wrote the monumental Principia Mathematica , an axiomatic system on which all of mathematics can be built.

The first volume of the Principia was published in , and is largely ascribed to Russell. More than any other single work, it established the speciality of mathematical or symbolic logic. Two more volumes were published, but their original plan to incorporate geometry in a fourth volume was never realised, and Russell never felt up to improving the original works, though he referenced new developments and problems in his preface to the second edition.

Upon completing the Principia , three volumes of extraordinarily abstract and complex reasoning, Russell was exhausted, and he felt his intellectual faculties never fully recovered from the effort. Russell's last significant work in mathematics and logic, Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy , was written while he was in jail for his anti-war activities during World War I. This was largely an explication of his previous work and its philosophical significance.

Russell made language, or more specifically, how we use language , a central part of philosophy, and this influenced Ludwig Wittgenstein , Gilbert Ryle , J. Austin , and P. Strawson , among others, who used many of the techniques that Russell originally developed. Russell, and GE Moore, argued that clarity of expression is a virtue. A significant contribution to philosophy of language is Russell's theory of descriptions , set out in On Denoting Mind , Frank P. Ramsey described this paper as "a paradigm of philosophy. Frege had argued, employing his distinction between sense and reference, that such sentences were meaningful but neither true nor false.

Russell argues that the grammatical form of the sentence disguises its underlying logical form. Russell's Theory of Definite Descriptions enables the sentence to be construed as meaningful but false, without commitment to the existence of any present King of France. This addresses a paradox of great antiquity e. Otherwise, how could we say of it that it is not? In Russell's own time, Meinong held the view of that which is not being in some sense real; and Russell held this view prior to On Denoting.

The problem is general to what are called " definite descriptions. What is the " logical form " of definite descriptions: how, in Frege's terms, could we paraphrase them to show how the truth of the whole depends on the truths of the parts? Definite descriptions appear to be like names that by their very nature denote exactly one thing, neither more nor less.

What, then, are we to say about the proposition as a whole if one of its parts apparently isn't functioning correctly? Russell's solution was, first of all, to analyse not the term alone but the entire proposition that contained a definite description. The proposition as a whole then says three things about some object: the definite description contains two of them, and the rest of the sentence contains the other.

If the object does not exist, or if it is not unique, then the whole sentence turns out to be false, not meaningless. One of the major complaints against Russell's theory, due originally to Strawson , is that definite descriptions do not claim that their object exists, they merely presuppose that it does. Wittgenstein, Russell's student, achieved considerable prominence in the philosophy of language after the posthumous publication of the Philosophical Investigations.

In Russell's opinion, Wittgenstein's later work was misguided, and he decried its influence and that of its followers especially members of the so-called "Oxford school" of ordinary language philosophy , who he believed were promoting a kind of mysticism. He wrote a foreword to Ernest Gellner 's Words and Things which was a fierce attack on the Oxford School of Ordinary Language philosophy and Wittgenstein's later work and was supportive of Gellner in the subsequent academic dispute.

However, Russell still held Wittgenstein and his early work in high regard, he thought of him as, "perhaps the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating. Russell explained his philosophy of logical atomism in a set of lectures, "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism", which he gave in Logical atomism is a form of radical empiricism, for Russell believed the most important requirement for such an ideal language is that every meaningful proposition must consist of terms referring directly to the objects with which we are acquainted, or that they are defined by other terms referring to objects with which we are acquainted.

Russell excluded some formal, logical terms such as all , the , is , and so forth, from his isomorphic requirement, but he was never entirely satisfied with our understanding of such terms. One of the central themes of Russell's atomism is that the world consists of logically independent facts, a plurality of facts, and that our knowledge depends on the data of our direct experience of them. Russell's epistemology went through many phases. Once he shed neo-Hegelianism in his early years, Russell remained a philosophical realist for the remainder of his life, believing that our direct experiences have primacy in the acquisition of knowledge.

And I don't read Dutch! MIT: Bradford Book. The author was born in Brooklyn, New York. The book is very good.

Also: Grice, Davidson, and the social aspect of meaning. Grice's Heritage. Conference, San Marino. AYER, A. Sir Freddie, or Alfred Jules. Aristotelian Society, vol. The interesting thing is that Grice had an essay for the Aristotelian Society on the same title given some 16 years earlier, but everybody who had attended the first seemed to have been dead or oblivious by then, and let it pass.

Foster, who is Ayer's literary executor at Oxford, and got a reply, "Forget it, JL, Ayer never again mentioned Grice in public or other". BACH, Kent. Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts. Grice cited pp. Since most of his stuff is available online. Studied with Grice at Berkeley.

Some of his online papers have been discussed by the greatest Gricean of all, J L Speranza. Fellow of St John's, Oxford. Alternative mind styles. Baker came to St John's in , tho' he had known him for some years when he was a grad student at Oxford. He discussed with Grice in Berkeley. Grice attended Baker's seiminar on Vagueness and Baker attended Grice's seminar on the philosophy of mind. One of Grice's literary executors. The social construction of value. Symposium on the thought of Paul Grice. Married to Ian Hacking, who besides being a nice man, has also quoted Grice! Davidson on weekness on the will written with H.

The Conception of Value. Former member of Phil Dept, Washington. Do one's motives have to be pure? Symposium on the Thought of HP Grice. Discussion of two of Grice's metaphysical construction routienes applied to value theory: Humean projection and metaphysical transsubstantiation. Ruhr Univ. Bochum Context, change, truth and commpetence. Southern Illinois U.

Analysis, vol. The PhD has many other ramifications Prof Analytical Philosophy, Groningen. Towards a praxis oriented theory of argumentation. In Dascal, Dialogue. She later wrote a book. Situations and attitudes. Cites Grice Now he's dead, Barwise is.

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Short-Circuited Implicature. Prof Comm. Nebraska U. Background understandins and the situated accomplishment of conversational telling expressions. Cites Clark as Gricean. George Persson. Born Detroit. Grice cited at p. The rest, as R. Paul says, is mere symbolism. Participant at Grice's at home discussions groups. Student with Robert Paul at Reed. Book Relevant sections on Grice: "Grice on meaning" He also wrote a book about Locke where he says that Locke was influenced by Grice citing him on p.

In his book on empiricism he quotes Remarks for a case where what one sees supports p and what one feels supports q. Published in The Journal of Philosophy. Grice does so in Method in Philosophical Psychology, p. Sir Isaiah. He went with Grice together, not to bed, but to the meetings of the playgroup, every tuesday, way back before the war -- that's the War with The Germans, They liked each other. Grice cites Berlin loads. Meaning and Belief. Cites Grice. Scottish philosopher. Teaches at Stirling. Quotes Grice Philosophical Quarterly.

Reply to Symposium with D. Nobody reads Bird's reply, though! Confusing the audience. BIRO, J. Born Hungary. Educated Nottingham Univ. Gainesville, Florida, philo prof. Main essay: "Intentionalism in the theory of meaning. The Monist, vol. Letter to Suppes. Biro speaks of theory-laden no political overtone observation, and epistemological versus conceptual primacy.

Very interesting letter.

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Rather personal but interesting. Biro speaks of courtesy. Nice, ednit! Meaning, translation and interprettion. Australian Journal of Philosophy, vol. In O Neumaier, Mind language and society. Cocnetpus Studien, Vienna, Section one: Grice's reduction. Conventionality and speech acts, SouthWest Philos. What's in a belief. As If I had a chance! Correspondence with JLS, et al. Competence and performance in use-theories of meaning.

MidAmerica Lingusitics Conference Papers. University of Kansas, Lawrence. Grice cited on page The rest you can ignore. In defense of social content. The son of an English diplomat. Born Russia Meaning and intention: an examination of Grice's views.

New literary History, vol. Relevant sections: the whole essay. I mean with a title like that what do you expect main sections: section 3. Grice's theory of meaningfulness section 4. G's conditions insufficient section 5. G's conditions unnecessary! G's way out section 9. One chapter for Grice! Blackburn was 35 when Grice delivered the John Locke Lectures. Blackburn was older than that when Grice died. Blackburn is alive, but Grice ain't.

Grice cited at pp. Blackburn tells that Grice attended a lecture on the philosophy of language on Grice that Blackburn was given, at Berkeley, circa Grice attended it, surprisingly, and he would groan and say, "Where did you take that from?

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MIT Chairman Troubles with functionalism. Repr in Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology. Cites Grice, Method in philo psycho, at p. Jean Beer. Round Rock, Texas. Is acting willing? Nous vol 17 cites Grice Intention and Uncertainty Grice cited on p. Gus: a frame driven dialogue system. Quotes Grice, Logic and Conversation. I cc-ed Bobrow to see if Gus had learned to say something more interesting than "Yes, please", and "No thanks", and he referred me to work by Barbara Grosz -- the computational Grice. Bobrow writes, "A speaker says as little as will suffice to communicate the point to be made.

Grice calls these conventions conversational postulates and implicatures". The term "postulate" was introduced in the literaturee by metaphor analyst G N Lakoff, not by Grice! On the gricean picture semantic properties derive from the representational properties of though and one cannot threaten meaning without threatening thought content, since it is from thought that meaning is held to derive. The Gricean needs to be given a separate argument against the possbility of mental content.

A logician at Berkeley. Cited by Grice, Vacuous Names, p. Grice cited on p. Gruyter, Berlin. Cited by Grice in Personal Identity, repr. Grice Cites Propsoitions about material objects. PAS vol. Cites Grice, Meaning. Michael Edward. Prof Phil Stanford. Davidson's theory of intention. In Grice's exaple I think I may well be in jail by tonight, and for that reason no not believe I will go to the concert. He also cites Grice in Two faces of intention. PR, and in Tomberlin.

Grice says this is ambiguous between a warning and a report. Cited by Grice in Personal Identity. Semantic constraints on relevance Book. Prof of Linguistics Salford, Lancashire. Formerly Southhampton. Prof of Psycho. Born New York, The social context of language acquisition. Harris, Approaches to Language.

Oxford, Pergmanon. Journal of Philosophy, vol. Proper names play, in a formal semantic theory, the role of constant nocomplex singular terms. Burge's PhD is called, Truth and other referential devices, Princeton.

Very posh man. He has too "rather general reservations. Trust reviewers to criticise things! Walker's essay is tops! Prof of Linguistics, Newcastle, England. Modality and Implicature Linguistics and Philosophy, vol. I belong in there too, although I don't believe in the magical powers of relevance, much. Does it show? We talked about Grice. Carey K The role of conversational implicature in the early grammaticalisation of the English perfect. The Academy of Finland Dialogue Games Grice cited sv, sviii, 46, , , , , xix, 47, "the game comparison brings out the goal directed character of language use, emphasised by Grice in his work on conversation.

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