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The s are far enough in the future as to be beyond the scope of current planning and election cycles. Yet the decade is also soon enough that those making predictions might live to see their accuracy. This book, spun out of a project at Univer The full review cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions. You can read the full review at Londonist. Football clubs could be paying fans to attend matches and running schools under visions of the future of London in 50 years.
Other projections portray bleaker alternatives involving severe environmental and population pressures including flooding that forces the widespread construction of homes on stilts. But it warns that declining prosperity elsewhere in London will put them in danger of sharply falling attendances. The study, titled Imagining the Future City: London , includes contributions from experts in urban planning, geography, politics, engineering, computer science and policy. UCL says that it is intended to provoke debate about the choices currently facing Londoners. Copyright is retained by the author s.
Images of the Future City: Time and Space For Sustainable Development / Edition 1
This book has been peer reviewed. Over the course of a year, with support from Focal Cities Mexico , they created a new proposed regulation see the full document here , in Spanish founded on two principles: non-discrimination and social protection. Under the principle of non-discrimination, the workers propose expanding access to public space, simplifying the process of obtaining and transferring licenses and eliminating discriminatory disqualifiers, including illiteracy and previous criminal record , recognizing natural markets as areas of work and involving organizations of informal workers in the process of determining dedicated zones for work spaces.
Read how shoe shiners in one Mexico City neighbourhood fought their displacement. For the second principle focusing on social protection, they propose health and child care provisions for non-salaried workers, and certain maternity and social security benefits. Informal workers face many challenges in accessing basic social protections, especially women. Adding these two principles to the revised regulation establishes that regulation for informal work in public space is needed, but it should be fair, transparent and developed in a way that responds to the realities of informal workers and that is supportive of their livelihoods.
Read about how a street vendor used Recommendation to change policy in Costa Rica. Coffee vendors or cafeteros were part of a group of workers in Mexico City that proposed new regulations for working in public spaces. Grassroots Model in Accra: Improve recycling rates and reduce poverty through integrating waste pickers into solid waste management systems. It is well documented that waste pickers are waste management experts, sometimes the sole source of recycling services in cities across the Global South and even in the Global North. However, they are also some of the most marginalized and vulnerable workers, providing environmental services without service contracts or legal or social protections.
To fight collectively for these rights and recognition, waste pickers are organizing — through associations on open dumps and landfills, through cooperatives, across regions and even internationally. Although gains have been made in some contexts, waste pickers across regions are facing new, unprecedented threats to their livelihoods through the introduction of new technology and the modernization of waste management systems.
The logic behind the SDGs is to implement them in a coordinated way, with the NUA providing a framework for their implementation in cities. Waste pickers in Accra, Ghana, hold out the bag of recyclables they have collected. They are key to helping Ghana achieve its new national pastics policy goals. Photo: D. In Accra, Ghana, policymakers have recently taken unprecedented steps to reduce plastics pollution: the President has committed to making Accra the cleanest city in Africa, and a new national plastics policy is in development.
But these bold steps will miss the mark if the Ghanaian government fails to harness the expertise and skills of the informal waste pickers who are already on the frontlines of plastic waste recycling. Read about how waste pickers are helping to solve the ocean plastic crisis. Waste pickers in Accra's Kpone Landfill sort through waste. These highly skilled recyclers are mobilizing to be integrated into the city's solid waste management system. In the process they are networking with other waste picker groups in Accra, with the intention of building a city-wide movement.
An alternate innovative design for future transport is the Aero-train which is partly train and partly aircraft. The vehicle is designed with wings and flies on an air cushion along a concrete track using wing and ground effects. This minimises the drag effect allowing the aero-train to consume less energy whilst reaching higher speeds than the conventional trains [ ]. Another imaginative idea, first proposed by Robert M. Salter in the s, is the evacuated tube transport ETT where a vehicle occurs in a vacuum to eliminate air resistance and friction, [ ].
Although the proponents say that ETT could be 50 times more efficient than electric cars or trains it is only a concept that is the subject of ongoing research [ ]. But the achievement of ETT would revolutionise future long distance transportation. The UN estimates that there will be more than 40 mega-cities worldwide by , each with a population of at least 10 million, compared to 28 today.
This massive global growth of urban areas will requires developments in administrative systems to ensure that technological advances described in previous sections truly deliver improved living conditions for all urban dwellers. Although the well-established scientific basis for global warming is well established, its full impact appears to be several decades in the future, action is required now to ameliorate its effects by identifying, prioritizing, and structuring new design and managerial tools to improve urban environmental and fiscal sustainability [ ].
The UHIE does not just cause discomfort for urban inhabitants, it is also a killer. Various studies of temperature related excess mortality using historical data have shown that during heat waves above a threshold temperature deaths increase significantly with each further degree rise. Not surprisingly, the young, old and those with serious medical conditions, a most vulnerable [ ]. Not surprisingly, the young, the old and those with existing medical conditions are most at risk. Mitigation technologies such as increasing green urban space and biodiversity, use of reflective materials, decrease of anthropogenic heat levels and use of low temperature natural sinks such as ground or water bodies aiming to counter the impact of the phenomenon are rapidly being developed and applied in real projects [ ].
Rehan provided a detailed framework, including several measures that will diminish the accumulation of heat in urban areas and mitigate their UHIE by a set of planning actions as a strategy to cool the cities. The framework is given in Fig. Richer urbanites can in principal, offset the effects of the UHIE merely by turning up their air conditioning or installing more powerful units. Nevertheless, to protect the vulnerable it may be necessary to build air conditioned refuges where they can be sent when local temperatures are high.
Cool city- Framework [ ]. Administrators are already aware of the need to incorporating UHIE mitigation as cities are further developed and is required in temperate regions as well as the topics. For example Public Health England has recently published an excellent guide the adverse effects of high temperatures and methods to combat them, both short and long term [ ]. Those who argue strongly that man-made global is a myth and therefore nothing needs to be done to mitigate it, must face the consequence if the world follows their lead and they are wrong people, especially the poor and vulnerable will die.
The adverse effect of increasing temperatures is based on sound research and historical data.
It is not a theory derived from a computer model. In large cities excess mortality from attributable to high temperatures is exacerbated by air pollution, notably NO x from internal combustion engines that ozone produced by the sunlight-induced reaction of oxygen with unburnt hydrocarbons. Indeed, separating excess urban mortality arising from pollution and high temperatures is problematical.
Now, green infrastructure is more often related to environmental or sustainability goals that cities are trying to achieve through a mix of natural approaches. A view of an urban green roof in Chicago, USA [ ]. The climate adaptation benefits of green infrastructure are generally related to its ability to moderate the expected increases in extreme precipitation or temperature.
Images of the Future City - Time and Space For Sustainable Development | Mattias Höjer | Springer
Benefits include better management of storm-water runoff, lowering incidents of combined storm and sewer overflows CSOs , water capture and conservation, flood prevention, accommodation of natural hazards e. The U. In a study performed by Gill et al. Trees and shrubs provide protection from both heat and UV radiation by direct shading both of buildings and outdoor spaces.
Evapotranspiration reduces the temperature in the area around vegetation by converting solar radiation to latent heat. Lower temperatures caused by both evapotranspiration and direct shading lead to a reduction in the amount of heat absorbed and therefore emitted by low albedo man-made urban surfaces [ , ].
ESA and Sustainable Development and Migration
Cities face different impacts, depending upon their sizes and levels of development. Small cities of upper income nations are facing with population decline as a result of the migration to larger cities for better job opportunities and higher life standards. Diminishing manpower makes it difficult for small cities to compete globally in terms of economy and productivity. On the other hand large cities in developed world are facing with the impacts of aging infrastructure and population.
Increasing population creates inequality and social cohesion inside the cities while job opportunities become more competitive [ ]. In contrast to developed nations, small cities in developing countries are faced with the impacts of weak economies and weak urban governance. Due to their inadequate infrastructure and buildings, such cities lack the resilience to survive natural disasters such as earthquake or flood is very low.
This Survival is threatened and in many cases many people are forced to vacate their homes See Fig. Environmental pollution is probably the most significant problem facing these cities, a result of the rapid industrialisation. But the latter potentially creates the wealth that can enable developing world cities to overcome their growing pains provided it is harnessed for benefit of all and is not siphoned off by corruption.
Impacts of global urbanization; a Flue gas emitting from a factory polluting the air in an urban area, b People vacating their houses after a flood disaster. Table represents the specific impacts of global urbanization depending on the size and development level of a city.
In many cities of China See Fig. The severe impacts of rapid urbanisation can be ameliorated by applying creative design to infrastructure. Ecosystems like multifunctional units will provide several uses rather than a single functionality thereby saving energy, time and cost. For instance garden plots can serve as water management system while providing food for citizens.
Similarly multifunctional buildings could save time for people while allowing efficient use of land [ ]. Significant advances in computer simulation provided tools that enable us to evaluate current conditions and requirements thus modelling future scenarios. This phenomenon will have increasing importance in future cities to monitor existing conditions for efficient use of capital and natural resources or controlling traffic flow through wireless sensor networks [ — ].
In addition it will allow modifying energy usage or household waste of urban dwellings with real time feedback [ — ]. South Korea has already put this technology into practice in city of Songdo, where traffic, waste and energy usage are monitored [ ]. Similarly in Rio de Janeiro there is a high-tech centre where public safety responses to natural disasters or building collapses are quickly identified [ , ].
The recent earthquake in Nepal demonstrated that, this kind of technological centre could save many lives with timely intervention during disasters. Technically, highly automated management systems are very attractive, but they have potential downsides. Technology must be tempered by democratic safeguards if individual liberties are not to be infringed. The vulnerability of a highly networked city to a physical or a cyber- attack on data centres must be minimised. These developments could potentially be just important to the operation of modern cities as the new engineering technologies.
Emerging cities should be where human beings find satisfaction of basic needs and essential public goods. Where various products can be found in sufficiency and their utility enjoyed. Future cities should also be the habitats where ambitions, aspirations and other immaterial aspects of life are realized, providing contentment and happiness and increasing the prospects of individual and collective well-being. However in many developing cities, prosperity is absent or restricted to some groups or only enjoyed in some parts of the city [ 6 ].
Low purchase power contrarily increasing expenses could socioeconomically pressurize individuals and minimize their social subsistence. This situation will turn citizens from productive and creative individuals to the ones just trying to survive. Cities also should be compact structured with improved accessibility, they should include natural habitats allowing biodiversity and socialisation of individuals and should have a well-designed transport network which will eliminate the need for private vehicles to overcome the rising traffic problem in growing cities.
The future urban configurations should concentrate on efficient use of resources and opportunities that could help to achieve prosperity and citizen well-being in five dimensions as defined below and illustrated in Fig. Contribute to economic growth through productivity, generating the income and employment that afford adequate living standards for the whole population. Deploy the infrastructure, physical assets and amenities — adequate water, sanitation, power supply, road network, information and communications technology etc.
Provide the social services — education, health, recreation, safety and security etc. Minimize poverty, inequalities and segments of the population live in abject poverty and deprivation. Protect the environment and preserve the natural assets for the sake of sustainable urbanization. Wheel of urban prosperity [ 6 ]. The past few decades have witnessed a notable surge in economic growth, but one which has been accompanied by an equally daunting degree of inequity under various forms, with wider income gaps and deepening poverty in many cities across the world.
Economic inequality is seriously detrimental to the equitable distribution among individuals of opportunities to pursue a life of their choosing and be spared from extreme deprivation in outcomes. According to recent reports, income gaps between rich and poor are expanding in both developed and developing countries [ 6 , ]. Cities generate wealth, but the problem is the unequal distribution of it. Despite considerable increases in productivity e.
GDP per capita along with reductions in extreme poverty, inequality as a whole is growing in most parts of the world — a process that undermines urban life quality [ ]. In many cities, the population and local experts concur that inequalities are becoming steeper which could be a threat for emerging cities in terms of their sustainability and well-being of citizens. This can integrate environmental technologies, comprehensive urban development, fiscal sustainability and good governance, to provide emerging cities with a set of tools in order to improve the quality of life globally.
However, cities are struggling with climate change, changes in population and demographics, congestion, healthcare, and pressure on key resources. Nevertheless, simply applying innovative technologies alone will not guarantee the combination of sustainability and acceptable living standards for future cities…good governance and management will also play a pivotal role. This can only be provided by utilizing technological advancements optimally whilst also developing short and long term management, organization and development strategies to realize the desired objectives.
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