Study Strategies for Lifelong Learning

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Teach students how to find the answer to quick questions like, "What's the capital of Nigeria? When students are curious in your classes, give them 20 seconds to find an answer and share it with the class. They'll feel that genius burn that comes only with doing the impossible. When you get curious in the middle of a lesson plan, show students how you stop and research or read a book on the subject or watch a video -- just because you're curious.

Let them see your eyes light up when you learn something unexpected. I'll never forget the excitement when I found out that the chemical formula for photosynthesis and chlorophyll differed only by one molecule the former has iron and the latter has magnesium , I told everyone I could think of about it. You are that role model. There you have it, nine ways to turn any student into a lifelong learner.

All of these start with you. Embrace what for some is a platitude but for others is so much more: We are all learners. Questions about this? Wonder about details? Leave me a comment or email me at askatechteacher gmail. TED Talk. Lifelong Learning -- an Economic Imperative. At TeachHUB it is our mission to improve the quality of education by making available the most current, complete and affordable resources for all K Educators.

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Log In. Search Results Header Enter your keywords. For teachers, by teachers. Print This Page. By: Jacqui Murray. Jacqui Murray. Related Articles. How to Survive Homecoming as a Teacher. Preparing for a teaching interview is a lot like studying for a test. A few technology in the classroom apps that are easy for both teachers and Back-to-school night is meant for the parents to get to know the teacher and Classroom Holiday Party Ideas. Hands-On Websites Kids Love. Free Lesson Plans Grade K-2 Math: Distance Equations. Grade: Subject: Math.

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Advanced Lifelong Learning strategies: How to Study Smarter

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Study Strategies for Lifelong Learning by Claire Ellen Weinstein

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By Anthony Adams on June 30, What does it take to be an inspirational leader? By Jeffrey Savage on June 23, What is "evidence-based decision-making"? Strategic learners know about typical educational activities and tasks and understand what is required to complete them successfully. It is difficult to complete a puzzle if one does not know that successfully completing a puzzle means putting all of the pieces where they belong. Similarly, older students often have difficulty with reading school materials because they do not know how to identify main ideas or what to do to help themselves remember them Van Hout Wolters, Listening in class is difficult if one is not sure what information she or he is supposed to be focusing on when the teacher or other students talk.

It is difficult to study for an essay test if one has never taken one before or does not understand how to formulate an appropriate answer. For students, working on an educational activity when they do not understand its nature or the appropriate outcome i. An important part of teaching is helping students understand the nature of academic tasks in addition to helping them to learn how to complete the tasks successfully.

This is particularly true for students who may come from an educationally impoverished background or a background with a limited range of educational experiences. Students need to know about the nature of academic tasks and the types of strategies that will help them to accomplish different tasks. Conversely, if students are unclear about the nature of a particular task or activity, then it will be difficult for them to select the appropriate strategies for completing it.

Strategic learners build bridges between what they already know and what they are trylng to learn.

Research has shown that these bridges make it easier 16 I Study Strategies for Lifelong Learning to understand new information and to transfer it to more permanent memory Mayer, ; Wittrock, If people have lots of connections to something in memory, then they will have many paths that they can use to find it in the future.

If people have only one path to reach something, then it is far less likely they will find it. Thinking about other things people know and relating those things to what they are trylng to learn help people to build these paths. A number of learning strategies build on this finding. For example, using analogies to help understand something unfamiliar and comparing and contrasting what a person knows to what he or she is trylng to learn are two instances of using existing knowledge to help build meaning for something a person is t y n g to learn. It is important for teachers to help students learn how to use their existing content knowledge to build bridges to things they are trylng to learn.

As teachers, we can provide information, but only students can transform it and generate their own knowledge. The more we can teach them how to build meaning for whatever they are trylng to learn, the more capable they will be of independent, self-directed learning. Helping students to use knowledge they already have to build meaning is a big step in this direction. Many learning strategies, such as the use of analogies, comparison and contrast, application, and the building of direct relationships, require the use of prior knowledge to help make the new information more meaningful.

If students do not know how to use prior knowledge to build bridges to new information, they will not be able to effectively use these strategies. Teachers must help students to become more aware of their prior relevant knowledge and the ways in which they can use it to build bridges to what they are trying to learn. Context variables include but are not limited to 0 teacher expectations 0 time constraints for assignments 0 school behavior expectations and norms 0 peer interactions and support Defining Strategic Learning I 17 Strategic learners are aware of the context in which they are learning and how that context frames, constrains, and supports studymg and learning i.

For example, they understand school and classroom norms for both behavior and achievement. They are aware of task and project deadlines and know how to use this information to help them plan their efforts toward task achievement. They know about resources available to them in the classroom and school environment, such as the library and teacher aides or tutors, and how to use them as resources to help reach learning goals. Context variables help students to know what is expected of them by teachers and peers, available resources for accomplishing learning tasks, and the level of support or encouragement they can expect.

These variables have strong relationships to the selection and use of learning strategies, particularly for working on difficult or challenging tasks. If they understand the constraints of time and resources for an assignment or school task, they can use this information to select a reasonable strategy, one that will not require more resources than are available. If they are clear on what is required of them and expectations about successful performance, then it is easier for them to select strategies to reach these goals.

As teachers, we need to help our students become more aware of context variables and how to use this information to set and reach their learning goals. Understanding the school and classroom environment gives students an edge on making the environment work for them. The types of strategies they choose and use will be affected by this knowledge. One way to deepen your own understanding of the importance of these five types of knowledge is to reflect on how you use them to meet your own learning goals, in addition to how they might help your students to become more effective and efficient learners.

Think about ways that the five types of knowledge impact your learning. How does strategy knowledge help you to learn? How does self-knowledge help you to learn? How does task knowledge help you to learn? How does content knowledge help you to learn? How does context knowledge help you to learn? Defining Strategic Learning I l9 uNow think of a lesson you will be teaching your students. How might their strategy knowledge affect the ways they will try to learn the material?

How might their self-knowledge affect the ways they will try to learn the material? How might their task knowledge affect the ways they will try to learn the material? How might their content knowledge affect the ways they will try to learn the material? How might their context knowledge affect the ways they will try to learn the material?

Teaching tips 9th ed. The teaching of learning strategies. Wittrock Ed. New York: Macmillan Zimmeman, B. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Springer-Verlag. This goal begins by outlining the three common categories used to describe learning strategies: rehearsal, elaboration, and organizational strategies. Weinstein and Mayer developed these categories to apply to both basic learning tasks-knowledge acquisition and comprehension- and complex learning tasks-application, analysis, and synthe- sis.

Next, we outline the three kinds of knowledge that learners Understanding the Categories and Characteristics of Learning Strategies I 23 need to effectively acquire, select, and use learning strategies: declarative, procedural. Finally, we introduce pre-, during-, and posttask strategies. Rehearsing means the learner is actively reciting or naming what he or she is trying to remember. In its simplest form, rehearsal is used to maintain something in temporary memory until it is used.

For example, if you have ever called information for a phone number and then quickly repeated it to yourself until you dialed the number, you were using a simple rehearsal strategy. Rehearsal strategies for basic learning tasks focus on repetition to increase familiarity and memory. Rehearsal strategies usually involve repeating key terms or items aloud, rereading, repetitive writing, or using mnemonic devices such as tunes, rhymes, and pictures. They include actions such as repeating the letters of the alphabet using the common tune that children sing, saymg rhymes to remember the steps for clearning up the classroom and putting all of the toys away at the end of the school day, and reciting the names of the planets in the order of their distance from earth.

Each of these methods is designed to help people learn and remember new things or procedures. Over time, people may not need to use these strategies as the information they are repeating becomes a part of their knowledge base although we still know many adults who must use the ABC song to help them remember the order of individual letters in the alphabet! Rehearsal strategies for complex learning tasks can help students focus their attention on main ideas and important portions of a reading and help them to learn and remember this information.

You are using some 24 I Study Strategies for Lifelong Learning form of repetition for a limited number of items to help create further occasions for learning to take place. Rehearsal strategies for complex learning tasks focus on selection of important information and repetition to increase familiarity, understanding, and memory.

Rehearsal strategies for complex learning tasks involve more active thinking on the part of the student. For example, to rehearse important information from a textbook, the student must be able to select main ideas and separate didactic information from the key things they must understand and hold on to in memory. If a student is using a note-taking strategy to record information from the textbook or a class, then the student must select both which information to copy and the form the notes will take e.

Common examples of the use of rehearsal strategies for complex tasks include repeating information aloud shadowing , taking selective notes, underlining important information, highlighting parts of a text, and copying material. Although rehearsal strategies do help students to select and acquire information, they do not generally help students to integrate that information with other things that they know, or to build bridges among parts of what they are learning.

A knowledge base full of independent and discrete information is not very useful as a tool for further learning or as a resource for higher order thinking and application. The next category of learning strategies, elaboration strategies, addresses these problems. How can rehearsal strategies best be used by your students to meet their learning goals for the basic learning tasks you present?

Think of two basic learning tasks that you teach. Now think about which rehearsal strategies might best help your students to accomplish these tasks. Describe a basic learning task from one of your lessons. What rehearsal strategies might help your students to complete this task successfully? Describe a second basic learning task from one of your lessons. Think about which rehearsal strategies might best help your students to accomplish these tasks. Describe a complex learning task from one of your lessons.

Describe a second complex learning task from one of your lessons. By elaborating on or adding to the material, students build up meaning and help to move the new information along the memory continuum. Using these strategies also helps students to organize and integrate their new and old knowledge in meaningful ways. This not only helps to make the new information more understandable and memorable but also helps to generate a usable data base for higher order thinking and application.

Using elaboration strategies helps students to learn and store information in a usable form. Teachers know that as students gain more knowledge in an area, it is important for them to be able to integrate their knowledge as a step toward developing greater expertise in using it. Elaboration learning strategies help them to reach this goal. In their simplest form, elaboration strategies can be used to learn lists of conceptually related items or meaningful relationships among a group of items. For example, if you were trylng to remember that a tomato is a fruit, you might create a mental image of a tomato sitting in a bowl of fruit, imagine that you are eating a bowl of fruit with tomatoes in it, or make up a sentence explaining why a tomato is a fruit.

Each of these strategies would help to begin building meaning for what you are trying to learn and relate it to associated knowledge. Elaboration strategies for basic learning tasks focus on building bridges either among parts of what students are trying to learn or between what they are trylng to learn and their prior content knowledge.

Although these strategies have their greatest impact with complex learning materials, they are also useful for simple tasks such as learning foreign vocabulary, serial lists, and clusters of items. Relating a foreign vocabulary word to English forms of the word, exploring the relationships among scientific terms, and generating an image of a scene described in a story are all forms of elaboration strategies for basic learning tasks. The bridges students build using these strategies help them to cross back and forth between their existing knowledge and the new information.

These strategies can range from students simply restating the information using their own words to teaching it to someone else or using it to solve a problem. When you think about how a 28 I Study Strategies for Lifelong Learning new teaching idea relates to other ways you teach similar material, paraphrase an article, or translate research results into concrete suggestions for your work, you are using elaboration strategies.

You are adding to what you are trylng to learn and remember in order to help give it more meaning for you and make it easier to remember and use. Elaboration strategies for complex learning tasks focus on selection of important information for further study and building meaning for this information by relating it to what is already known or using reasoning skills to analyze it and build internal connections and meaning. Students cannot be mentally passive and use elaboration learning strategies.

They require a lot of cognitive effort to be effective. In fact, research has shown that part of the benefit students derive from using elaboration learning strategies comes from both the processing itself and the products that result Gagne, When students use elaboration learning strategies, they are actively interacting with the material. This helps to increase attention, concentration, and interest. We discuss more examples in Goals 3 and 4. How can elaboration strategies best be used by your students to meet their learning goals for basic learning tasks you present?

Think of two basic learning tasks you teach. Now think about which elaboration strategies might best help your students to accomplish these tasks. What elaboration strategies might help your students to complete this task successfully? Which elaboration strategies might help your students to complete this task successfully?

However, they are so commonly used and are so powerful that most classifications of learning strategies separate them out into their own category e. These strategies involve imposing an organizational framework onto the information students are trying to learn. This framework can be specific to the new information an internal organization or can relate it to existing knowledge an elaboratedframework. In their simplest form, organizational strategies often focus on clustering new information to make it more manageable or easier to remember.

Clustering can help take some of the load off what is often referred to as working memory. However, it is known that there are clear limits to the amount of information people can focus on at any particular moment in time. The working memory is the part of the human mind that can be conceptualized metaphorically as a work area, like a conference table or desk Baddeley, Researchers have found that people can keep about 9 things in working memory simultaneously Miller, The things, or chunks, of information that people can keep in working memory can vary tremendously in size.

Thus one of the ways people can expand their working space is by chunking things into bigger pieces. This is one of the goals of using organizational strategies. They help people to cluster information into bigger chunks. For example, cover the rest of this page while you try to memorize the following string of letters: TwauSAibMUniCeF Think about how easy or difficult you found this task and why.

Most people would have difficulty remembering a string of 15 meaningless letters without doing something to give the letters some organization or meaning. One of the ways you may have done this with the list we just presented was by clustering the items. This example demonstrates how organizational learning strategies can reduce the load on working memory.

This is a major function of organizational strategies for basic leaming tasks. When students use organizational strategies, they often chunk things together into larger clusters or impose a conceptual framework on a set of items. For example, using the typical components of a story to help organize the actions and flow of events makes it not only easier to maintain in working memory but also helps to build meaning for the tale.

Study strategies for lifelong learning

Organizational strategies for complex learning tasks help to expand working memory capacity while they help students to build meaning for the new information and move it along the memory continuum so the information is available for future use. Like elaboration learning strategies, these strategies require that students actively think about the material and focus their attention on the key things they must understand and hold on to in memory. Common examples of the use of organizational strategies for complex tasks include diagramming text, sorting new paintings into existing categories, creating a tree diagram to summarize the main ideas and their interrelations from a class unit, and creating a conditional flowchart to explain a complex production process.

All of these methods help to generate meaning and reduce the working memory load, so that students can concentrate their efforts on understanding and using the new material Klatzky, How can organizational strategies best be used by your students to meet their learning goals for basic learning tasks you present? Now think about which organizational strategies might best help your students to accomplish these tasks Describe a basic learning task from one of your lessons.

Which organizational strategies might help your students to complete the task successfully? Which organizational strategies might help your students to complete this task successfully? Think about which organizational strategies might best help your students to accomplish these tasks. Which organizational strategies might help your students to complete this task successfully! Understanding the Categories and Characteristics of Learning Strategies I 35 Note that people often do not just use one or another of these strategies.

It is much more common to use combinations or mixtures. Strategic learners are able to self-regulate by selecting and integrating strategies appropriate to the specific learning goals. For example, consider the following case: Charlie is studymg the scientific method in his seventh-grade science class. When first introduced to this topic, he uses a rehearsal strategy-repeating aloudto memorize the steps in the process e.

While still learning the steps by name, he uses the elaboration strategy of compare and contrast to distinguish the various steps from each other. Finally, he uses an organizational strategy to help build deeper meaning by chunking the steps of the scientific process into bigger theoretical pieces. IDeclarative Knowledge About Learning Strategies I Declarative knowledge is what students need to know about different strategies and their characteristics.

Acquiring declarative knowledge about learning strategies helps students to become aware of different types of strategies and to learn about their individual characteristics and uses. When you repeat things, it means you say them over and over to yourself. Have you ever repeated the instructions for a game, so you would remember how to play it? By repeating things like this, we help ourselves to remember them. So, what is one way we can help ourselves to remember things?

Wait for a response. The teacher is discussing how to use analogies the declarative knowledge is in italics. Sometimes it is difficult for us to understand something we are trymg to learn. There are many things we can use to help ourselves when this happens. One way is to find something else Understanding the Categories and Characteristics of Learning Strategies I37 that is similar, although not the same, and use it to build our understanding. If you were just learning about our memory and how it works, it might be difficult to get the basic concept.

However, it would be easier if you could think about something else you know more about that is similar to human memory. You could use those similarities to help you understand human memory better. For example, if you have ever been in an office, you have seen a filing cabinet. There are a lot of similarities between how a filing cabinet is organized and how our memories are organized. Filing cabinets hold a lot of information, and so can our memory. Filing cabinets have a number of different drawers and places where we can store information, and so does our memory.

Thinking about these similarities helps to make the idea of human memory more meaningful and easier to understand and remember. When we lookfor similarities between things that are alike but not exactly the same, we say we are creating analoges. We say something is similar or analogous to something else. We usually do this when we are trying to help ourselves to understand and remember something we want to learn.

We use something we already know to help us better understand something we are trying to learn. You may have noticed that I use a lot of analogies when I am teaching you new things. Can anyone remember an analogy we used in class recently? Yes, that is a good one! You can use analogies to help yourself learn new things you are studying in school or on your own. They are wonderful learning strategies that can help you to make sense of new concepts or ideas. Although knowing about learning strategies and their characteristics is an important part of the knowledge students need, it is not sufficient.

Students must also learn how to use these strategies to help them with different learning situations. Educators learned a lot about teaching in college classes, but it was not until we stepped into the classroom and began to learn how to apply that knowledge that we really began to develop our expertise. It is important that teachers tell our students about learning strategies, but it is also critical that we help them to develop expertise in using them.

In fact, research has shown that it is better to present a minimal amount of declarative knowledge and then move on quickly to discussing procedural knowledge, giving students a chance to practice using the strategies Gagne, We discuss this further in the section on teaching methods. IConditional Knowledge About learning Strategies I As students gain expertise in using learning strategies, it is important that they learn about the conditions under which it is or is not useful to use a particular strategy Zimmerman, , For example, you would generally not use text mupping diagramming important information and relationships while reading a newspaper article unless it was for an assignment or project report , but you might use it for a difficult or important section of text.

Learning about the strengths and limitations of different strategies and refining their understanding of how each strategy works and why it can be helpful are important tasks for students. Teachers can play an important role in this process by both teaching about these issues and giving students feedback not only on their performance but also on how they went about learning what they needed to know to do it.

We refer to these as pre-, during, and poststrutegies.

Success Skills Strategies for Study and Lifelong Learning

Prestrateges help to set the stage. Prestrategies include having the appropriate materials and being in the appropriate frame of mind. During strategies are strategies that are aimed at building new meaning for new information, to help people learn it. Most of the strategies discussed previously in this chapter would be appropriate to use during this knowledge-acquisition phase.

Poststruteges focus on checking understanding or comprehension monitoring. Using pre-, during, and poststrategies allows students to select strategies for different purposes. If they paraphrase a section of text while reading it, they are building meaning and learning the content. If they paraphrase a passage while reviewing the chapter, they are checking on their comprehension Understanding the Categories and Characteristics of Learning Strategies I39 and making sure that it is accurate and adequate. We discuss these strategies more in Goals 3 and 4.

The following list provides some pre-, during, and poststrategies for the task of reading. Determine what the task is. Why did the teacher assign it? Skim to get a general idea of the content. Develop questions to be answered while reading. During-reading strategies Find an appropriate reading speed. Look for main ideas and details. Notice how this fits with what you already know. Take notes on the reading in outline form. Summarize the story. Use other knowledge-acquisition strategies. Try teaching the material to a classmate. Try to draw a picture representing the material.

Summarize the reading in your own words. Now that we have presented a set of knowledge and terms to understand and explain learning and study strategies, it is time to focus on how best to teach the prerequisite knowledge and skills students need, to become strategic lifelong learners. Toolsfor learning. Weinstein, C. Strategic leaminustrategic teaching: Flip sides of a coin. Pintrich, D. Weinstein Eds. McKeachie pp.

Understanding the Categories and Characteristics of Learning Strategies I 41 goal 3 Understanding How to Teach Learning and Study Strategies Goal 1 of this book focused on helping you to increase your knowledge base about the nature of learning and study strategies and how these strategies fit into a general model of strategic learning. Goal 2 was directed toward helping you increase your understanding of the nature and types of categories of learning and study strategies. The more you know about different types of learning strategies and methodsyou can use to help students become more strategic learners, the more effective you Understanding How to Teach Learning and Study Strategies I 43 will be in the classroom.

Goal 3 focuses on extending your knowledge base about how to help students learn about and use effective learning and study strategies and how this impacts your role as a teacher. We give you specific ideas of how to use this information in your classroom. We begin by identifying the three categories of teaching methods-direct instruction, modeling, and guided practice with feedback. Then we show you how to help students approach learning systematically.

ALLIANCE CU

Finally, we provide practical suggestions about how to facilitate student awareness of the five types of knowledge. Direct instruction 2. Modeling 3. Guided practice with feedback Usually, teachers will use some combination of the three. Direct instruction which is often used to teach the declarative knowledge discussed in the previous goal involves telling students about the strategies and how to use them. Modeling which is often used to teach procedural knowledge requires the teacher to demonstrate how to use the strategy. Guided practice withfeedback is usually used after direct instruction and modeling so that students can try out the strategies and get feedback about their choices and implementation which is often used to teach conditional knowledge.

This is usually done over a prolonged period so that students get a chance to continue refining their procedural and conditional strategy knowledge. However, students must also learn how to take a systematic approach to learning and studying that helps them to embed their strategy choices in a particular context. For example, the type of note-taking strategy a seventh-grade science student would choose to use when reading the text in preparation for an upcoming test would depend on a number of factors. Students may ask themselves, what other assignments or projects are due during the same period?

How much do I like science? How well have I done on other tests in this class? What type of test will it be? What grade do I want to earn on this test? How many chapters do I need to read? Adding this level of complexity requires students to take a planful and systematic approach to learning and studymg. Using a systematic approach to learning and studymg helps students to become more sophisticated in their selection and use of learning strategies. It involves combining information from each of the knowledge categories self as a learner, the nature of academic tasks, current content knowledge, current repertoire of learning strategies, and the academic context , as well as the other components of strategic learning will and self-regulation , to approach learning tasks in a planful and systematic manner to achieve learning goals.

Systematic approaches to learning are heuristic in nature. This means that they are not simple step-by-step procedures that can be mindlessly followed. Teachers cannot tell students how to learn everything they will need to know in each grade of school or in later life, but we can help them to develop guidelines, frameworks, and ways of thinking about learning and studylng tasks that will help them to increase their chances of reaching their learning goals.

Using a systematic approach to learning and studylng improves with practice over time. However, there is much that each teacher can do to help students along this pathway. Teaching students about the five types of knowledge they will need to be strategic learners is the first step. Helping them to develop increasing levels of expertise with a variety of learning strategies is also a necessary step. However, these steps by themselves are not sufficient.

Students must be taught how to start combining these different types of knowledge in the face of different learning tasks and contextual constraints such as the time available, available resources, and importance of the task. They also must become aware of the interactions among these variables and the other two components of strategic learning: skill and will. Strategic learners need to be aware of their thought processes so that they can better organize and more efficiently and effectively use and integrate their learning and study strategies.

For example, students first need to be aware of Understanding How to Teach Learning and Study Strategies I 45 what strategies they are using to learn new material and how well those strategies are working. With that knowledge in hand, they can analyze the process and improve on those strategies at that point in time or in the future. The next scenario illustrates this point. U George opened his second-grade reader to the story the teacher had assigned. It was about a circus bear that escaped and went to the mall. He quickly turned the pages, looking at all of the pictures.

It looked like a fun story. On the last page, he noticed some questions. He started back at the beginning and looked at his sheet of paper. Then he noticed that no one else was using this strategy. He held up his hand until Ms. Gonzales came over. He asked her if he was doing it right, and she assured him that it was a good strategy to use. In fact, she was so impressed, she told the whole class what strategies he was using to read-previewing the text looking at the pictures , identijying the task finding the study questions , and organizing the material copying the study questions.

She then asked him how he was going to check to make sure that he got all of the right answers. He thought for a second, then replied that he could ask Stacie, who was sitting across from him. Gonzales smiled and agreed. She then asked the other students to come up with pre-, during, and poststrategies to use for reading the story. George continued reading and felt good about himself as a learner. One heuristic that is simple to learn at any level and would be useful to teach explicitly in class is that learning strategies can be divided into pre-, during, and poststrategies.

Prestrategies deal with preparation: What does the task require? Do I have all of the necessary materials? How can I get in the proper frame of mind for this content area? Ruby found her seat in the class just as the bell rang. Eighth-grade science was interesting, she had decided.

As soon as the teacher began, Ruby was ready to go. She had the appropriate materials-pen, paper, and text. She also organized those materials well. She dated and labeled her notes and opened her text. Ruby was ready to move on to during strategies. During strategies deal directly with building meaning for knowledge acquisition, or how one actually learns the content. This happens while students read, listen in class, or work problems. Any time a new concept, fact, or idea is being acquired or reinforced when new boxes are being made or when material is being put into boxes of prior knowledge , learners use during strategies.

Strategic learners do a better job than nonstrategic learners of matching their strategy choices to the task requirements. Ruby started to take notes as her teacher began talking. She quickly fell behind. She realized that she could not keep up and write down every word he said, so she tried paraphrasing.

This worked better, but as he started the experiment, she saw that her notes became more and more confusing because the teacher was doing more and more and talking less and less. She knew that he wanted them to be able to make a complete circuit themselves, so instead of writing down words, Ruby began to make diagrams of what the teacher was doing.

This worked much better, and Ruby felt that she could make a complete circuit by looking at her notes. When the bell rang at the end of class, Ruby felt that she had learned a lot. Ruby, in this scenario, was aware of which strategies she was using and how effective they were. When they stopped working, for example, when she fell behind trylng to take notes verbatim, she adjusted her strategy.

Although that worked better, she realized that it did not fit with the task requirementsbeing able to make a complete circuit herself. Her teacher was asking for the students to learn the concept at an application level, and her notes were aimed more at simple comprehension. So Ruby adjusted once again to make a better match between how she was learning the information and what would be required of her later. The last group of strategies in this approach is the poststrategies. These come after knowledge has been put into boxes.